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3rd World Congress on Microbiology and Clinical research, will be organized around the theme “”
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Microbiology is the study of microscopic organisms, like bacteria, viruses, archaea, fungi and protozoa. It includes fundamental research on the biochemistry, physiology, cell biology, ecology, evolution and clinical aspects of microorganisms, including the host response to the agents. Infectious diseases are diseases caused by organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Some infectious diseases can be passed from person to person while some are transmitted by insects or other animals. Each infectious disease has its own specific signs and specific symptoms. Most infectious diseases have only minor complications while some infections like pneumonia, AIDS and meningitis can become life-threatening.
Clinical research refers to the research carried out on humans. It mainly focuses on enhancing knowledge of diseases, developing diagnostic methods and new treatments or medical devices to ensure better patient care. It is very framed and respects a precise study protocol and is performed only under certain conditions. Clinical research includes clinical trials, which involves testing of new treatments for a disease, and natural history studies, which collect health information to understand how a disease develops and progresses over time. Clinical research is conducted at academic medical centers and affiliated research study sites. The clinical research ecosystem involves a complex network of sites, companies (pharmaceutical) and academic research institutions and this has led to a growing field of technologies used for managing the data and operational factors of clinical research.
A bacterial infection is a proliferation of a harmful strain of bacteria on or inside the body. Bacteria can infect any area of the human body. Pneumonia and food poisoning are just a few illnesses that may be caused by harmful bacteria. Bacteria occur in three basic shapes: rod-shaped, spherical, or helical. Bacteria is additionally classified as gram-positive or gram-negative. Fungal infections represent the invasion of tissues by one or more species of fungi and they range from superficial, localized skin conditions to deeper tissue infections to serious lung, blood or systemic diseases. Types of fungi include molds, yeasts, and mushrooms. Fungi can cause different types of illnesses, including:
- Asthma or allergies.
- Rashes or infections on the skin and nails
- Lung infections with symptoms similar to the flu or tuberculosis
- Bloodstream infections
Virology is the study of viruses and virus-like agents, including their taxonomy, disease-producing properties, cultivation and genetics. It is usually considered a part of microbiology or pathology. Viruses became tools for probing basic biochemical processes of cells. Viruses are often classified according to the host cell they infect: animal viruses, plant viruses, fungal viruses, and bacteriophages. Other classification is predicated on the geometrical shape of their capsid (often a helix or an icosahedron) or the virus's structure (presence or absence of a lipid envelope). Viruses cause many infectious diseases, among which the common cold, influenza, rabies, measles, many forms of diarrhea, hepatitis, dengue fever, smallpox and AIDS.
A retrovirus belongs to the family Retroviridae and it is a type of RNA virus which inserts a copy of its genome into the DNA of a host cell that it invades, causing change in the genome of that cell. Usually, in most viruses, DNA is transcribed into RNA, and then RNA is translated into protein. However, retroviruses function differently, as their RNA is reverse transcribed into DNA, which is integrated into the host cell's genome and then undergoes the usual transcription and translational processes to express the genes carried by the virus. Retroviruses can cause tumour growth and certain cancers in animals and are also associated with slow infections of animals. In humans, a retrovirus known as human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes a form of cancer known as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). It can also cause a neurodegenerative condition known as HTLV-1-associated tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).
Industrial microbiology is a branch of applied microbiology in which microorganisms are used in industrial processes and these microorganisms are particularly important to synthesize a number of products valuable to human beings and have profoundly changed our lives and life spans. These products include beverages, food additives, products for animal health, and biofuels. There are different ways to manipulate a microorganism in order to increase the product yields. Introduction of mutations into an organism may be accomplished by introducing them to mutagens. Another way to increase production is by gene amplification, which is done using plasmids, and vectors. Advancements in industrial microbiology has permitted the isolation of enzymes in commercial quantities.
Food microbiology includes the study of microorganisms causing food spoilage; as well as, pathogens that may cause disease especially if food is improperly cooked or stored. It includes microorganisms that have both beneficial and deleterious effects on food quality and safety and may therefore be of concern to public health. Thorough preparation of food, including proper cooking, eliminates most bacteria and viruses in the food. However, toxins produced by contaminants may not be liable to change to non-toxic forms by heating or cooking the contaminated food. Temperature plays very crucial role to control microbial growth. To ensure safety of food products, some microbiological tests such as testing for pathogens and spoilage organisms is required. In this way the risk of contamination under normal usage conditions can be examined and food poisoning can be prevented.
Antimicrobial Agents are drugs, chemicals, or other substances that either kill or slow the growth of microbes. Various antimicrobial agents are antibacterial drugs, antiviral agents, antifungal agents, and antiparasitic drugs. Antimicrobial resistance occurs when microorganisms change when they are exposed to antimicrobial drugs. Microorganisms that develop antimicrobial resistance are referred to as “superbugs” and the medicines become ineffective and infections persist in the body, increasing the risk of spread to others. New resistance mechanisms are emerging and spreading globally, threatening our ability to treat common infectious diseases which is resulting in prolonged illness, disability, and death.
Microbial pathogenesis is a worldwide concern affecting millions of people around the world. These epidemics have caused thousands of deaths in the past. Microbial pathogenesis is a fascinating and complex phenomenon, with the pathogens utilizing a variety of virulence factors that all contribute to their pathogenic profile. However, blockage of any one of these key steps usually results in severe attenuation. Thus, vaccines that block a step should also block infection or tissue damage. Bacterial toxins are important virulence factors that mediate microbial pathogenesis.
Environmental Microbiology is the study of microbes within all habitats, and their beneficial and detrimental impacts on human health and welfare. It also includes also includes the study of microorganisms that exist in artificial environments such as bioreactors. The microbial world is significantly diverse and vast number of microorganisms covers the planet. Veterinary microbiology is concerned with the etiology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis and treatment of infection in the individual and with the epizootology (study of mass disease among the animals) and prevention and control of infection in the community.
It is a branch of genetics concerned with the transmission of hereditary characters in microorganisms. The studies of microorganisms involve studies of genotype as well as expression system. Microbial genetics provides powerful tools for deciphering the regulation, as well as the functional and pathway organization, of cellular processes. This involves identifying the regulatory genes and sites that control individual gene expression, as well as determining which genes are coregulated and thus likely to participate in the same process. Short generation time, haploid genome, ease of culturing, and their abundance facilitate these studies.
Waterborne diseases are caused by a variety of microorganisms, biotoxins, and toxic contaminants, which lead to devastating illnesses such as cholera, schistosomiasis and other gastrointestinal problems. These diseases can be spread while bathing, washing, drinking water, or by eating food exposed to contaminated water. The germs in the faeces can cause the diseases by even slight contact. This contamination may occur due to floodwaters, septic fields, and sewer pipes. Diarrhea and vomiting are the most reported symptoms of waterborne illness. Malaria transmission is facilitated when large numbers of people sleep outdoors or sleep in houses that have no protection against invading mosquitoes. Malaria mosquitoes, tropical black flies, and bilharzias snails can be controlled with efficient drainage system because they all depend on water to complete their life cycles. Clean water is a pre-requisite for reducing the spread of water-borne diseases among the humans.
Clinical trials are research studies performed in people that are aimed at evaluating a medical, surgical, or behavioral intervention. Clinical trials must be approved before they can start. Every clinical trial follows a protocol that describes what type of individuals may participate in the trial; outlines the exact schedule of tests, procedures, medications, and/or dosages involved in the trial; and specifies the length of the study. Each trial has specific inclusion and exclusion criteria to determine the exact patient populations that may participate in the trial. Inclusion criteria may be based on age, gender, underlying disease and health history. Clinical trials are divided down into phases, with each phase having a different purpose within the trial. Phase I trials involve a small group of people (20-80) and Phase II trials involve 100-300 people for further evaluation.
Pharmaceutical Microbiology involves the study of microorganisms associated with the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. Various aspects of pharmaceutical microbiology include the research and development of anti-infective agents, the use of microorganisms to detect mutagenic and carcinogenic activity in the drugs, and the use of microorganisms in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products like insulin and human growth hormone. There have been many changes in pharmaceutical microbiology in this century. Some of these changes have been due to the advance of rapid microbiological methods, knowledge gained from the study of the human microbiome. The most important contribution of microbiology to the pharmaceutical industry is the development of antibiotics. Microbiological tests like sterility testing, microbial limits test, the growth promotion test are performed for pharmaceuticals.
Microbial biochemistry comprises of biochemical reactions in microbial growth, various modes and mechanisms of pathogenesis required in causing infection/ diseases within the host. It involves the study of microbial growth, microbial cell structure, microbial metabolism, advanced functions and the interactions of biological macromolecules, like carbohydrates, proteins, fatty acids and nucleic acids; which cater the skeletal aspect and basis of functions affiliated with life. Biochemical study of microbes is important in the processes of their action. Post genomic analyses, maintenance of mechanisms, & functional replication, integrating plasmid functions, conjugation systems and regulatory network are the major factors that play an important role in metabolism of microbes. When monomers are co-linked to synthesize a polymer, dehydration occurs often leading to assembly of various macromolecules during a much larger complex.
We can prevent the spread of infectious diseases by washing hands regularly, using antibiotics sensibly, avoiding drinking of contaminated water, controlling vectors of infection. Getting vaccinated. Bacterial infections are usually treated using antibiotics while viral infections are usually treated with therapies like rest and increased fluid intake. Vaccines are available to prevent many common infectious diseases, including hepatitis, diphtheria, influenza. Antivirals, antifungals and antiparasitics are used to treat specific diseases.